The Russian Tortoise 
Agrionemys horsfieldii ( Testudo horsfieldii)  


Testudo horsfieldi Gray, 1844

Ambrosius, M. and G. Hoheisel. 1969. Electron-microscopic study of
antibody-producing (Plaque-forming) spleen cells of the tortoise Agrionemys horsfieldi Gray [German summary]. Experimentia 25: 1177-1178.

Ananjeva N.B., Borkin L.J., Darevsky I.S.,Orlov N.L. Amphibians and Reptiles. Encyclopedia of Nature of Russia. 1998. Moscow. ABF. 576 p. (in Russian)

Andreev, S. F. 1948. Adaptions of reptiles to high temperatures of
deserts. Uch. Zap. Biol. Fak. Univ. Chernovits 1:109-118.

Annandale, N. 1906. Notes on the Indian tortoises. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal
2: 203-206.

Ataev, C. A. 1997. Reptiles of the Autonomous Republic of Turkmenistan.
Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(4): 627-634.

Auffenburg, W. 1966. The carpus of land tortoises (Testudininae). Bull.
Florida State Museum. 10(5): 159-191.

Auffenburg, W. 1974. Checklist of fossil land tortoises (Testudinidae).
Bull. Florida State Museum 18(3):121-251.

Auffenburg, W. and J. B. Iverson. 1979. Demography of terresterial
turtles. In Turtles: Perspectives and research. pp 541-596. M. Harless and H. Morlock (eds.) John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Bashanow, W. S. 1928. Testudo horsfieldi Gray, im Flusstal der Ssamarka (Gour. Ssamara). Zool. Anz., Leipzig 76: 145-146.

Belekhova, M. G. and A. A. Kosareva. 1971. Organization of the turtle
thalamus: Visual, somatic and tectal zones. Brain Behav. Evol. 4:337-375.

Bergmann, . 1997. The natural history of the Central Asian tortoise.
Reptile Life 1(5): 20-23.

Blagodarnyi, Y. A. 1961. Ornithodoros tartakovski and Testudo horsfieldi
as vectors of pathogenic Leptoospira in the Muyunkum Desert. In Natural
nidality of diseases and problems of parasitology 3., I. G. Galuzo et. al. Pp.
98-110. Alma-Ata: Izdatel’stov Akadememii Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.

Bour, R. 1988. Caracteres diadnostiques offerts par le crane des tortues
terrestres du genre Testudo. Mesogee 48: 13-19.

Boyer, D. M. 1996. Rusian tortoise. Zoo Nooz LXVIII (12): 6.

Brushko, Z. K. 1977. Data of reproduction of the Steppe Tortoise in
southern Balkhash Lake Region. Proc. Zoo. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR 74: 32-35.

Cherchi, M. A. and A. Arillo. 1967. Effetti della 1,2, 3, 4-B-
tetraidranaftilammina sul metabolismo gassose e sul comportamento termico in Testudo horsfieldii Gray [English summary]. Boll. Mus. Ist. Biol. Univ. Genova 35: 445-446.

Cheylan, M. 1973. The genus Testudo in the Mediterranean basin. Bull.
Soc. Zool. Fr. 98(4): 594-595.

Chkhikvadze, V. M. 1988. Systematic classification of contemporary land
turtles of middle Asia and Khazachstan. Acad. Sci. Gerogian S. S. R., Biol. Ser. 14(2): 110-113 [in Russian]

Chkhikvadze, V. M. 1989. On the systematic place of fossil and recent
tortoises of the USSR. Abstract. First World Congress of Herpetology, Canterbury, England.

Chkihvadze, V. M., H. G. Amiranashvi, and C. Ataev. 1990. A new subspecies of tortoise form southwestern Turkmenistan. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Turkmenskoi S. S. R., Ser. Biol. 1: 72-75 [in Russian]

Chkhikvaze, V. M. and B. S. Tunijev. 1986. On the taxonomic status of
modern land tortoises of the western Transcaucasus. Bull. Acad. Sci. Georgian S. S. R. 124(3): 617-629[in Russian]

Crumley, C. R. 1988. A nomanclatural history of tortoises (family
Testudinidae). Smithsonian Herpetol. Inform. Serv. 75: 1-17.

Darlington, A. 1998. Horsefield’s Tortoise, Testudo horsfieldi. Terrapin
Tales 2(2): 5, 7, 9, 10.

Das, I. 1989. Asian land tortoises. Sanctuary Asia 9(4): 40-47.

Das, I. 1991. Colur Guide to the Turtles and Tortoises of the Indian
Subcontinant. R and A Publishing Limited. Avon England. 133 p.

Davydova TV. 1976. [Period of degeneration and features of the laminar distribution of the visual nerve endings in the midbrain tectum of the steppe turtle (Testudo horsfieldi, Gray)]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol. 1976 Aug;71(8):46-52. 

Ernst, C. and R. Barbour. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Inst.
Press, Washington DC 313p.

Ewert, M. A. 1979. The embryo and its egg: Development and natural
history. pp 333-416. In Turtles: perspectives and research. M. Harris and H. Morlock (eds.). Wiley Interscience, New York.

Fedtschenko. 1899. T. horsfieldii. Reise Turkest. Zool 2(7): pls 1-2.

Fischer S, Strutzberg-Minder K, Müller G, Homuth M.
[Molecularbiological diagnosis of herpes virus infection of a juvenile Russian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii) with skin and lung lesions] [Article in German] Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006 Jan-Feb;119(1-2):28-34.

Flower, S.S. 1926. Species of land tortoises of the genus Testudo found
in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Copeia 126: 133.

Fritzsche, D. and W. Hempel. 1990. Haltung und nachzucht von Agrionemys horsfieldii . Aquarien Terrarien 37(2): 58-60.

Frolov, V. E. 1989. Seasonal and diurnal activity of the Central Asian
tortoise Agrionemys horsfieldii in Turkmenia. Proc. First World Congr. Herptol., Canterbury: 107.

Galichenko, M. V. 1983. Annuak cycle of Grecian tortoise Testudo graeca
and Horsefield’s terrapin Testudo horsfieldii behavior [Russian] In Panov, E.
N.: Proceedings of the Third All-Union Conference on Animal Behavior+
Materialy Tret’et Vsesoyuznoi Konferentsii Po Povedeniyu Zhivotnykh. Moscow, USSR:
izdatel’stuo Nauka. Behavioral Mechanisms=Mekhanizm povedeniya: pp 88-90.

Gray, J. E. 1844. Catalogue of Tortoises, Crocodilians, and Amphibians
in the Collection of the British Museum. British Museum (natural History),
London. viii + 80p.

Gray, J. E. 1870. Notes on tortoises in the British Museum, with
descriptions of some new species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 653-659.

Gubayeva, N. S. and L. V. Ivanova. 1968. Structure and development of
oocytes vitelline membrane in Testudo horsfiledi [Rusian with English summary].
Arkh. Anat. Gisiol. Embriol. 55(12): 39-44.

Gunther , A. 1864. The reptiles of British India. Porter, Dular and
Bates: London. 444 pp.

Hervas J, Sanchez-Cordon PJ, de Chacon Lara F, Carrasco L, Gomez-Villamandos JC. 2002 Hepatitis associated with herpes viral infection in the tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii). J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002 Mar;49(2):111-4. 

Hempel, W. 1988. Haltung und nachzucht von Agrionemys horsfieldii. Elaphe
10(2): 21-24.

Highfield, A. C. 1996. Practical encyclopedia of keeping and breeding
tortoises and freshwater turtles. London, Carapace Press (pg 241-245)

Hoogmoed, R. E. 1974. The reptile trade. Int. Zoo Yearbook 14: 47-52.

Isabekova, S. B., N. M. Karyagina, and A. I. Krivchenko. 1988. The
dynamics of the bloodflow and oxygen tension in the brain of the tortoise Testudo horsfieldi during local heating of the head [Russian]. Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 24(1): 111-114.

Isabekova, S. B. and D. V. Muntina. 1988. Catecholamine content of some tissues of the tortoise Testudo horsfieldi after cooling [Russian]. Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 24(1) 108-111.

Iverson, J. B. 1986. A checklist with distribution maps of the turtles of
the world. Privately Printed, Paust printing, Richmond, Indiana. 238 pp.

Khan, M. S. and M. R. Mirza. 1976. An annotated checklist and key to the
reptiles of Pakistan. Part 1: Chelonia and Crocodilia. Biologia (Lahore) 22(2):

Khozatsky, L. I. and M. Mlynarski. 1966. Agrionemys-nouveau genre de
tortue terrestris (Testudinidae). Bull. Acad. Polonaise Sci., 14(2):123-125.

King, F. W. and R. L. Burke. 1989. Crocodilian, Turatara, and Turtle
Species of the World. a taxonomic and geographic reference. Association of Systematics Collections. Washington, DC 216 p

Kirsche, W. 1971. Care for and breeding of the steppe turtle Testudo
horsfieldii. Monatsschr. Ornithol. Vivarienk. Ausg. B Aquarien Terrarien. 18(3):
84-86; 18(4): 118-120; 18(5): 158-160; 18(6): 198-200.

Kirsche, W. 1979. The housing and regular breeding of Mediterranean
tortoises Testudo spp. in captivity. Int. Zoo Yearbook. 19:42-49.

Kirsche, W. 1984. Bastardierung von Testudo horsfieldii (Gray) und
Testudo h. hermanni Gmelin. Amphibia-Reptilia 5: 311-322.

Knotková Z., J. Doubek, Z. Knotek, P. Hájková: Blood Cell Morphology and Plasma Biochemistry in Russian Tortoises (Agrionemys horsfieldi). Acta Vet. Brno 2002, 71: 191-198.

Koroleva, L. A. 1988. On radiosensitivity of Testudo horsfieldi Gray
[Russian]. Radiobiologiya 28(2): 269-270.

Korotkov, Y. M. 1967. Abundance of the Horsefield’s terrapin (Testudo
horsefieldi Gray) in Bandkhyz [Russian with English summary] Zool. Zh. 46:1862.

Kubykin, R. A. 1995. Population density of the steppe tortoise in some
regions of the Almaty and Taldyqorghan Districts, Kazakhstan. Translated from 1988 paper. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(3): 235-237.

Kruglova, E. E. 1987. The ratio and composition of plasmalogenic and
diacyclic forms of phospholipids in subcellular fractions of the brain in the
tortoise Testudo horsfieldi [Russian]. Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 23(5): 528-587.

Kuseutzov, V. V. 1963. On the time of appearance of the Horsfield
tortoise in middle Asia [Russian]. Material. 1st. Fauny Flory Kazakhstana. Alma Ata. 4: 217-218.

Kuzmin, S. L.  2002. The Turtles of Russia and Other Ex-Soviet Republics. Edition, Chimaira Frankfurt am Main (pg. 101-130)

Loveridge, A. and E. E. Williams. 1957. Revision of the Aftican tortoises
and turtles of the suborder Cryptodira. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard

Makeev, V. M., A. T. Bozhanskii and Y. A. Khomustenko. 1983. Distribution and numbers of reptiles in the central Kopet Dag, USSR [Russian] Zool. Zh.
62(7): 1122-1125.

Makeev, V. M., A. T. Bozhanski, and V. E. Frolov. 1986. Distribution of
the central Asian tortoise (Agrionemys horsefieldi Grey, 1844) in the south
of the Turkmen SSR. In Studies in Herpetology. Proceedings of the European Herpetological meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Prague. pp 711-712.
Z. Rocek (ed).

McLaren, B. D. 1995. Unusual drinking behavior in a Russian tortoise.
Notes from NOAH XXII (12); 8.

Milton, S. A. 1966. A contribution to the herpetology of West Pakistan.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 134: 27-184.

Mlynarski, M. 1966. Morphology of the shell of Agrionemys horsfieldii
(Gray 1844) (Tustudines, Reptilia). Acta. Biol. Cracoviensia Zool., IX:

Mlynarski, M. 1966. Morphology of the shell of Agrionemys horsfieldii
Gray, 1884. Testudines, Reptilia. Acta. biol. crac. (Zool.) 9: 219-223.

Moll, E. O. 1979. Reproductive cycles and adaptations. pp 305-332. In
Turtles; perspectives and research. M. Harless and H. Morlock eds. John Wiley and
Sons. New York.

Mortchan, N. A. 1964. Antibiotic properties of the egg albumen of the
steepe tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi Gray.). Vestn. leningr. Univ. (15): 18-25.

Movchan, N. A. 1964. Antibiotic properties of the albumin of the steppe
tortoise (Testuudo horsfieldi Grav.) Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Biol. 15(3):18-25.

Movchan, N. A. 1966. Fungicidal properties of the albumin of the eggs of
the steppe tortoise Testudo horsfieldi. Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Biol. 3(1):59-69.

Movchan, N. A. 1966. Fungicidal properties of the steppe tortoise Testudo
horsfieldii Gray [Russian with English summary]. Vest. leningr. gos. Univ.
No. 3:59-69.

Movchan, N. A. 1976. Bacteria in the eggs of the steppe tortoise. Vestn.
Leningr. Univ. Biol. 9(2):155-157.

Nawaz, M. and Y. Nawaz. 1986. Status, distribution and conservation of the
Afghan tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii Gray, 1844) in Pakistan. Tigerpaper

Nikolski, A. M. 1915. Fauna of Russia and adjacent countries. Reptiles 1.
Chelonia and Sauria. Petrograd. 532 pp.

Obst, F. J. 1986. Turtles, tortoises and terrapines. St. Martins, New
York. (pg 84-85)

Obst , F. J and H. Ambrosius. 1971. Taxonomische Studien an europaischen Landschildkroten (Reptilia: Testudinidae) mit serologische-immunologischen Methoden. Zool. Abh. Staatliches Mus. fur Tierkunde, Dresden, Bd. 30(22):299-331.

Paull, R. C. 1997. The small and medium-sized tortoises. Green Nature
Books, Homestead Fl (pg. 158-161)

Prichard, P. C. H. 1979. Encyclopedia of turtles. Neptune, NJ, T.F.H.
Publications (pg 410-414.

Reshetnikov, S. S. 1964. Afferent innervation of the esophagus of the
turtle (Testudo horsfieldii ). Dokl. (Proc.) Acad. Sci. USSR. 153: 1563-1565.

Rhodin, A. G. J. 1974. Pathological lithophagy in Testudo horsfieldi. J.
Herp. 8: 385-386.

Roberts, T. J. 1975. A note on Testudo horsfieldi Gray, the Afghan
tortoise or Horsefield’s four-toed tortoise. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.

Sclater, P. L. 1878. Notes on Testudo horsfieldi. Proc. Zool. Soc., London:

Sergeev, A. M. 1941. On the biology of the reproduction of the Steepe
tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii Gray). Zool. Zh. 20: 118-133.

Shamakov, S. 1981. Reptiles of the plains of Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan,
Soviet Socialist Republic.: Ylym Ashkhabad [(Ed,). A. K. Rustamov, Academy of
Sciences, SSR Turkmenistan].

Sjokvist, A. 1983. A contribution to the biology of captive Testudo (
Agrionemys ) horsfieldi. Testudo: J. British Chel. Gr. 2(2): 37-39.

Slavens, F. L. 1989. Reptiles and amphibians in captivity: Breeding -
longevity and inventory. Privately printed, Seattle. 474 pp.

Smith, M. A. 1931. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma.
Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol I. Loricata, Testudines. Taylor and Francis,
London. 185 pp.

Stubbs, D. 1989. Testudo horsfieldi Horsfield’s tortoise. In The
Conservation biology of tortoises. pp. 37-38. I. R. Swingland and M. W. Klemens
(eds.). Occ. Paper IUNC/SSC No. 5. (pg. 37-38).

Teifke JP, Lohr CV, Marschang RE, Osterrieder N, Posthaus H. 2000. Detection of chelonid herpesvirus DNA by nonradioactive in situ hybridization in tissues from tortoises suffering from stomatitis-rhinitis complex in Europe and North America. Vet Pathol. 2000 Sep;37(5):377-85. 

Terent’ev, P. V. 1965. Herpetology: a manual on amphibians and reptiles.
Jerusalem: Israel Progress in Science Translations.

Terdent, P. V. and S. A. Chernov. 1949. Key to amphibians and reptiles.
Israel Programme for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem (1965 edn.) 340 pp.

Wahlquist, H. 1991. Horsefield’s tortoise, Agrionemys horsfieldi. Tortuga
Gazett 27 (6): 1-3.

Wermuth, H. 1957. Die Vier-ZehenLandSchildkrote Testudo horsffieldii
Gray. Aquar. u. Terrar. Lepzig. 4:4.

Werner, C. and R. Werner. 1980. Zur zucht der vierzehen-odor
steppenschildkrote Agrionemys horsfieldii (Gray). Elaphe 1: 9-10.

Williams, E. E. 1950. Variation and selection in the cervical central
articulations of living turtles. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 94(9): 505-516.

Wright, 1985. The Horsefield’s Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii). Testudo:
J. British Chel. Gr. 2(3): 26-30.

van der Kuyl AC, Ph Ballasina DL, Dekker JT, Maas J, Willemsen RE, Goudsmit J. 2002 Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences.
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2002 Feb;22(2):174-83.

Zagorulko, T. M. 1968. Effects of intensity and wavelength of photic
stimulus on evoked responses of general cortex and optic tectum in turtles. Fiziol.
Zh S.S.S.R. 54:436-446.                                             




All material herein © 2000 -2020 ", Joe Heinen DC". All Rights Reserved